Cortical Brain Abnormalities in 4474 Individuals With Schizophrenia and 5098 Control Subjects via the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.
van Erp TGM, Walton E, Hibar DP, Schmaal L, Jiang W, Glahn DC, Pearlson GD, Yao N, Fukunaga M, Hashimoto R, Okada N, Yamamori H, Bustillo JR, Clark VP, Agartz I, Mueller BA, Cahn W, de Zwarte SMC, Hulshoff Pol HE, Kahn RS, Ophoff RA, van Haren NEM, Andreassen OA, Dale AM, Doan NT, Gurholt TP, Hartberg CB, Haukvik UK, Jørgensen KN, Lagerberg TV, Melle I, Westlye LT, Gruber O, Kraemer B, Richter A, Zilles D, Calhoun VD, Crespo-Facorro B, Roiz-Santiañez R, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez D, Loughland C, Carr VJ, Catts S, Cropley VL, Fullerton JM, Green MJ, Henskens FA, Jablensky A, Lenroot RK, Mowry BJ, Michie PT, Pantelis C, Quidé Y, Schall U, Scott RJ, Cairns MJ, Seal M, Tooney PA, Rasser PE, Cooper G, Shannon Weickert C, Weickert TW, Morris DW, Hong E, Kochunov P, Beard LM, Gur RE, Gur RC, Satterthwaite TD, Wolf DH, Belger A, Brown GG, Ford JM, Macciardi F, Mathalon DH, O'Leary DS, Potkin SG, Preda A, Voyvodic J, Lim KO, McEwen S, Yang F, Tan Y, Tan S, Wang Z, Fan F, Chen J, Xiang H, Tang S, Guo H, Wan P, Wei D, Bockholt HJ, Ehrlich S, Wolthusen RPF, King MD, Shoemaker JM, Sponheim SR, De Haan L, Koenders L, Machielsen MW, van Amelsvoort T, Veltman DJ, Assogna F, Banaj N, de Rossi P, Iorio M, Piras F, Spalletta G, McKenna PJ, Pomarol-Clotet E, Salvador R, Corvin A, Donohoe G, Kelly S, Whelan CD, Dickie EW, Rotenberg D, Voineskos AN, Ciufolini S, Radua J, Dazzan P, Murray R, Reis Marques T, Simmons A, Borgwardt S, Egloff L, Harrisberger F, Riecher-Rössler A, Smieskova R, Alpert KI, Wang L, Jönsson EG, Koops S, Sommer IEC, Bertolino A, Bonvino A, Di Giorgio A, Neilson E, Mayer AR, Stephen JM, Kwon JS, Yun JY, Cannon DM, McDonald C, Lebedeva I, Tomyshev AS, Akhadov T, Kaleda V, Fatouros-Bergman H, Flyckt L, , Busatto GF, Rosa PGP, Serpa MH, Zanetti MV, Hoschl C, Skoch A, Spaniel F, Tomecek D, Hagenaars SP, McIntosh AM, Whalley HC, Lawrie SM, Knöchel C, Oertel-Knöchel V, Stäblein M, Howells FM, Stein DJ, Temmingh HS, Uhlmann A, Lopez-Jaramillo C, Dima D, McMahon A, Faskowitz JI, Gutman BA, Jahanshad N, Thompson PM, Turner JA
Biological Psychiatry Impact Factor: 11.410
PubMed Id: 29960671 Link a PubMed
The profile of cortical neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia is not fully understood, despite hundreds of published structural brain imaging studies. This study presents the first meta-analysis of cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities in schizophrenia conducted by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Schizophrenia Working Group.The study included data from 4474 individuals with schizophrenia (mean age, 32.3 years; range, 11-78 years; 66% male) and 5098 healthy volunteers (mean age, 32.8 years; range, 10-87 years; 53% male) assessed with standardized methods at 39 centers worldwide.Compared with healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia have widespread thinner cortex (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.530/-0.516) and smaller surface area (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.251/-0.254), with the largest effect sizes for both in frontal and temporal lobe regions. Regional group differences in cortical thickness remained significant when statistically controlling for global cortical thickness, suggesting regional specificity. In contrast, effects for cortical surface area appear global. Case-control, negative, cortical thickness effect sizes were two to three times larger in individuals receiving antipsychotic medication relative to unmedicated individuals. Negative correlations between age and bilateral temporal pole thickness were stronger in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers. Regional cortical thickness showed significant negative correlations with normalized medication dose, symptom severity, and duration of illness and positive correlations with age at onset.The findings indicate that the ENIGMA meta-analysis approach can achieve robust findings in clinical neuroscience studies; also, medication effects should be taken into account in future genetic association studies of cortical thickness in schizophrenia.